In the conclusion some recommendations about observance of building norms (on SNiP) which should be taken into consideration at installation, adjustment and operation of heating systems.
At installation of coppers, installation of flues and heating devices necessary fire-prevention ruptures between heating devices and flammable designs of a building - walls, overlappings, floors, a roof should be provided, etc. At the design of a building not protected from ignition distance (space) from a copper to walls should be not less than 350 mm, and at protected - not less than 250 mm.
Coppers are established directly on a single-row bricklaying or on a steel sheet laid on wooden overlapping on felt, moistened in a clay solution. The platform before a copper fire chamber is without fail isolated from overlapping by metal sheet.
For removal from coppers of products of burning flues are used. Dymohodnye pipes can be brick, stenovye, national teams.
It is the Most rational to arrange stenovye pipes - they allow to save a useful area and premise volume, but it is not recommended to have flues in external walls of a building as it leads to overcooling of smoke gases (draught falling) and plentiful formation of a condensate on a wall under a pipe turned into a premise.
Dymohodnaja the pipe should stand strictly vertically, have whenever possible equal, without ledges, an internal surface. Internal section of a flue choose depending on thermal capacity teplogeneratora, however always do multiple
To the sizes of a brick, but not less 140x140 mm. For creation of sufficient draught the height dymohodnoj pipes should be not less than 5 m, considering from level of a grid-iron lattice.
Fire-prevention actions have special value at operation of flues as about 50% of all fires occur because of failure condition of furnaces and flues.
In places of an adjunction of wooden designs to smoke channels of pipes or walls it is necessary to arrange cutting - a laying thickening. In cutting of interfloor overlappings it is possible to use a standard ferro-concrete plate.
It is not supposed nastilka a timber floor, a ceiling and obreshetki roofs closely to a pipe or walls with smoke channels. Filing of a ceiling and a floor lead up to cutting edge, other space fill with fireproof materials - concrete (a solution with napolniteljami), a ceramic tile, mineral cotton wool, asbestos etc.
Wooden beams should defend from smoke channels not less than on 250 mm, and their ends should be isolated sheet asbestos or the felt impregnated with a clay solution, in two layers.
Flues on all extent should have a space from wooden walls not less than on 250 mm. A wall thus isolate two layers of felt or sheet asbestos and upholster with a sheet steel. On attics and roofs between a pipe and wooden details leave a backlash not less than 130 mm, and at a combustible roof (roofing felt, roofing material, a shingle, etc.) not less than 260 mm. A pipe in garret space rub clean a limy solution and bleach to supervise a laying condition (cracks and a soot touch are clearly visible on a white background).
Care of flues provides in the basic their regular cleaning in which process leave soot and dust congestions. They are dangerous in the fire relation as at their ignition there can be a fire. Struts clear a usual broom with the metal sphere hung up to it or the weight.
The Best results are given by application of the special ruff made of a steel wire. Resinous soot if it does not give in to mechanical cleaning, delete a burning out.
Periodicity of clearing of flues depends on the chosen mode of a fire chamber and quality of fuel. The flue before the osenne-winter period of operation is necessarily cleared.
The System of water heating should be filled by water constantly all year long. It protects internal surfaces of pipes and devices from corrosion.
Before the cold season beginning it is necessary to spend trial start-up of system of heating in time to be convinced of its serviceability. Once in two-three years the system is recommended to be washed out. For this purpose it is necessary to merge water from system, and pipelines and devices carefully to wash out fresh water under pressure. Still bolshy the effect is reached at hydropneumatic washing, i.e. At simultaneous giving with water of compressed air from a cylinder or the compressor under pressure to 6 kgs/sm 2 . Before washing system disunite in two places - on a strut and a return highway around copper installation (the copper is washed out separately). Having connected to a strut through the nozzle union a flexible hose from a water supply system, wash out system until from a return highway pure water which take away thus in the water drain will not go. At hydropneumatic washing it is useful to blow at first pipelines the compressed air for vzryhlenija deposits on an internal surface of pipes, and then to wash out their mix of water and air.
The method chemical clearing systems Is applied. To clearing apply, in particular, a solution ingibirovannoj hydrochloric acid. In it for delay of reaction with metal add special substances-ingibitory.
In the course of cleaning there is a scale crust etching on internal surfaces of pipes and devices. After chemical clearing careful washing of system by tap water is required.
More safely, than dry cleaning, and not so is technologically difficult clearing of system by a method vyshchelachivanija . The solution at 10-20 o'clock joins system kaltsinirovannoj the soda, prepared of calculation 20 g soda on 1 litre of water. A solution heat up to working temperature, maintain within 10-20 hours. After cooling a solution merge from system and wash out system a countercurrent method, i.e. Directing promyvochnyj water stream in a direction opposite to circulation of water in a mode of heating.
After washing the disassembled connections restore and through a refuelling branch pipe slowly fill system with water so that in pipelines and devices does not remain air stoppers. Copper cleaning combine, as a rule, with washing of system of heating.
For scum removal use a solution ingibirovannoj hydrochloric acid or special means - antinakipin.
It is expedient to apply to such cleaning of a copper a hydropneumatic way. Compressed air submit to a copper half filled with a solution through a branch pipe of a return highway. A solution, rising on sections, loosens a scum which then delete through the bottom aperture in front section, with the subsequent washing of a copper at first a solution kausticheskoj soda, and then pure tap water.
Way of removal of a scum More simple and convenient in house conditions - vyshchelachivanie . For this purpose fill a copper at the blocked gates of a return highway with a solution kaltsinirovannoj soda with the subsequent kipjacheniem within 16-24 hours. After that a solution merge and delete shlam and a dirt through the bottom aperture in front section and carefully wash out a copper tap water.
At a trial fire chamber a water temperature in a copper lift till 90-95 ° With and support it at this level within an hour, simultaneously checking to the touch warming up of separate sites. During this time free air should leave system through a broad tank, and all system in regular intervals to get warm. If after that badly warmed up site is found out, it is necessary to remove from it air, using the drain crane. If on this site there is no device vozduhoudalenija, it is possible to drill in the highest point of this site an aperture in diameter of 1,5-2 mm, to let out through it air, and then to muffle an aperture.
the Heated-up system is necessary for checking up on absence of leaks . Found out podtekanija at once eliminate: on sgonah new stuffing under a counternut, at one-piece connections - installation of coupling collars with a rubber lining, and also bandages from izoljatsionnoj tapes on a basis made of cloth with application epoksidnogo glue.
One of the major conditions long and non-failure operation of system of water heating - preservation and maintenance of constant level of the heat-carrier in system. Constant leaks and connected with them frequent dolivka systems fresh water are inadmissible. Frequent change of water conducts to a scaling, obrastaniju pipes that negatively affects on teplootdache systems as a whole. Oporozhnenie heating system conducts to intensive korrodirovaniju from within and consequently water is recommended to be merged only for washing or repair after which termination it is necessary to fill system with water at once.
Before rozzhigom a copper systems of water heating are necessary for checking up, whether the copper is filled by water - thus it is necessary to be convinced that surplus of water follows from perelivnoj pipes of a broad tank. Before rozzhigom completely open valves of fresh air and shiber a flue. Fuel load into a copper when the kindling will inflame. To open shiber a flue follows depending on draught of a chimney. If there is a burning regulator he automatically establishes quantity of the cold air arriving in a copper for burning of fuel. Daily care of such installation consists in clearing of a lattice of ashes and slag, and also in loading by fuel. Weak burning of fuel at night practises.
At work of system of heating watch, that the water temperature in system did not rise above 95 ° With. Otherwise it is necessary to stop air receipt in a fire chamber, wide open to open doors of a fire chamber and shiber a flue that the copper has a little cooled down.
In need of system through the return pipeline cautiously add cold water not to cause in a copper of temperature pressure.
It is necessary to clear an internal surface of a copper, a flue and shibera a wire brush Is more often. After the cold season termination it is necessary to clear a copper and all flues also.
In order to avoid defrosting of system of heating during the winter period at a long break in work all water from system should be lowered.
For the heating installations working on gaseous fuel with coppers adapted for this purpose, are suitable resulted above the recommendation for coppers on firm fuel. The burning mode should be supervised according to maintenance instructions of fire chambers, torches, regulators and similar devices. Maintenance of the set temperature is carried out under thermometer indications. Depending on temperature of external air the water temperature on a copper exit is necessary for supporting according to tab. 35 recommendations.
At occurrence of a smell of gas it is necessary to close immediately the crane of giving of gas, to notify corresponding service of a gas economy, to exclude occurrence in open fire and to take all measures on ventilation and airing zagazovannogo premises.
the Water temperature in a copper depending on temperature of external air
| Temperature external
Air, ° With
| the Water temperature
On an exit from a copper, ° With
| Temperature external
Air, ° With
| the Water temperature
On an exit from a copper, ° With