Water heating Water heating Water heating of a country house Water heating of the house country house Heating house Heating

Installation of struts and podvodok to devices

the Big distribution has received so-called trumpet klupp , intended for narezanija carvings in diameter from 1 / 2 to 2 inches.

the Design trumpet kluppa is shown on fig. 62. In the pig-iron case 9 tools are available on the one hand three rectangular cuts for directing dies 3, and on the other hand - four for cutting dies 4. In dies pins 5 which enter into grooves of two razvodnyh rings are fixed, namely: rings 6 for directing dies and a ring 7 for cutting dies. Grooves have the spiral form, thanks to it dies at turn razvodnyh rings move in a radial direction according to the demanded diameter of a carving. Razvodnye rings are attached to the case kluppa by tightening rings 10 and 11. For latching razvodnyh rings screws 1 and 8 serve. Two handles 2 with which the tool rotate in an operating time are screwed In the case kluppa.

Trumpet klupp

a Fig. 62. Trumpet klupp

Klupp has two complete sets of dies : for narezanija carvings in diameter of 1/2 and 3/4 of inch and a carving in diameter 1, 11/4, 11/2 and 2 inches. Dies of the first complete set are cut on the one hand, and the second - from two parties. On dies (and also on the case kluppa) figures on which installation of dies is made are put. On razvodnom a ring 6 there are the risks showing position of this ring at narezanii of a carving of the demanded diameter.

the Carving in diameter 1/2 and 3/4 of inch is cut trumpet kluppom for one pass, and bolshego diameter - for two passes. Starting to narezaniju carvings on a pipe, a pipe clamp in a clip and grease it in a place of cutting with drying oil or lubricating oil. Klupp put on a pipe (thus lock screws should be turned out) and easy blows wooden kijankoj on the handle of a tightening ring reduce closely to a pipe directing dies. Having made it, fix directing dies the lock screw. In the same way establish and fix cutting dies, being guided thus on the risk, corresponding to diameter of a cut carving.

as Kluppom work, rotating it clockwise and simultaneously pressing it forward. To remove klupp from a pipe, dies plant.

Trumpet klupp demands careful leaving . Every day after work it is necessary to disassemble, clear and grease it.

the Female thread cut taps . The tool a tap (fig. 63) represents the screw with the several longitudinal flutes forming cutting edges. At a tap distinguish a working part 1 and the shaft 4, and a working part is subdivided on intaking 2 and calibrating 3. The intaking part having the conic form, makes the basic work of cutting. A shaft with a head 5 fix a tap in vorotke or in a machine tool cartridge.

Taps are subdivided on manual and machine . At manual taps a shaft of the square form. Narezanie the basic metric and inch carving it is manually made by the complete set from three taps (fig. 63, and carvings small metric and trumpet - the complete set from two taps. The sequence of application of taps is defined by number risok And, put on a shaft. The tap of big number has fuller carving. For work a tap insert in vorotok. Before to enter it into an aperture, the last razzenkovyvajut. At narezanii carvings in the working party accompany each turn of a tap a turn part in the opposite direction that the shaving and a tap broke did not get jammed in an aperture.

Taps

a Fig. 63. Taps
And - a tap and its basic parts; - the complete set of manual taps

At narezanii carvings kluppami and taps presence of a carving with the broken threads, and also an incomplete (stupid) carving is possible.

  • the First kind of marriage can be a consequence of insufficient greasing, application stupid (badly perfected) dies or taps, wrong installation of dies in kluppe, and also result of excessively deep cutting at the first pass.
  • the Stupid (incomplete) carving turns out when external diameter of a cut detail falls outside the limits the minus admission or when diameter of an aperture under a carving is overestimated.

Pipelines in diameter to 2 inches , as a rule, gather by means of the connecting shaped parts having a female thread, with application in many cases of armature - cranes, gates etc. Assemblage methods, or otherwise - convolutions, depend on a kind of a carving at pipes, shaped parts and armature. At a cylindrical carving of a parcel it is made with application of a sealing material that it is reliable to prevent a leak in carving connection.

As a sealing material use the linen lock impregnated with minium or whitewash, got mixed up on natural drying oil.

the Applied linen lock should be pure - without a hemp and tow impurity. Before imposing it on a carving, a lock rassuchivajut so that it it was possible to place an equal layer between flutes of a carving and that separate threads of a lock more or less separated from each other.

Having greased a carving with minium or whitewash, reel up on it rassuchennuju a lock from left to right (i.e. Clockwise), going from the beginning of a carving and to its end - sbega. Thus it is necessary to watch that lock threads have not got on the first thread of a carving, and the lock ends - in a pipe.

the Reeled up lock coat with minium or whitewash, then navertyvajut a shaped part or armature: at first by hand, and then a trumpet key.

For reception of dense, impenetrable connection it is necessary to carry out one obligatory rule: a shaped part or armature it is necessary navertyvat on a pipe to the full, i.e. So that it was jammed on last two konusnyh threads (sbege) carvings. Therefore it is rather important for connection of pipes with shaped parts and armature to sustain length of a carving part on a pipe which depends on diameter of pipes.

The Parity is that:

Length of a short carving, mm: 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2
Diameter of a pipe in inches:
- for navertyvanija shaped parts
- For navertyvanija armatures muftovoj
14
12
16
13,5
18
15
20
17
22
19
24
21

Use sgonov . Assemblage of the branched out pipelines and their joining to devices by means of one only short carvings are impracticable. At installation of such pipelines arrange by means of pipes with a long carving on one end - sgonov - the demountable connections used also at dismantling of pipelines for repair.

For these connections (fig. 64) cut on the end of the pipe adjoining with sgonom, a usual short carving. The length of a long carving (without considering sbega) on sgone should be sufficient that it was possible to screw on it a counternut and then muftu. Lengths of long carvings:

Sgon

a Fig. 64. Sgon

Diameter of a pipe in inches

1/2

3/4

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

Length of a carving, mm

50

55

60

65

70

75

Connection of pipes with the help sgona is carried out so.

1) the Counternut and muftu navertyvajut on a long carving without consolidation and without namazki minium or whitewash. A short carving at the second pipe prepare with consolidation and namazkoj minium or whitewash, then muftu curtail (drive) from a long carving so that it to the full on has returned on a short carving.

2) However if to leave connection in that kind in what it has turned out it will be inevitable to spring a leak as from outside a long carving mufta has no consolidation and it is not jammed on sbege carvings. Hence, in this place it is necessary to create consolidation also. It carry out by means of a linen lock, but not rassuchennoj, and prepared in a kind zhgutika, greased with minium or whitewash.

Zhgutik a ring navertyvajut on a pipe at edge mufty and a counternut strongly press to mufte: the lock gets to a facet specially turned in a counternut. If between muftoj and a counternut there is no warp and their end faces densely adjoin to each other, connection turns out impenetrable enough.

3) it was above underlined that one of the basic conditions of reception of dense connection is a reliable jamming of a shaped part or armature on sbege pipe carvings. Hence, in no event it is impossible to submit back navernutuju a shaped part.

If at the connection device happens so that navernutyj a tee or krestovina, the square or the crane have not occupied demanded position to correct it it is possible, only having made in addition incomplete turn on a carving course. In the absence of such possibility follows raskontrit sgony on either side of a shaped part or the crane and to try to give the last a correct direction. Having achieved it go, connect sgony again.

4) Upon termination of convolution cut off the superfluous lock acting from under carvings.

Curling of pipes and shaped parts is made by special trumpet keys . Two-lever keys (fig. 65 at which levers 1 and 2 come to an end with sponges with a notch for capture of a pipe or a shaped part are Most common. The lever 2 has cutting and can move by means of a nut 3. Nut rotation to the right sponges of levers pull together, with rotation to the left - plant. So a key adjust for the given diameter of a pipe.

Trumpet keys

a Fig. 65. Trumpet keys
And - two-lever; - system Volevacha key

Features of a two-lever key in that that when move the lever 2, sponges of both levers remain parallel each other. It allows to use a key also for navertyvanija nuts, counternuts and armature. However presence of two levers - a key lack. It heavy enough on weight, besides, to press levers to each other one hand, is required to spend considerable effort. On fig. 65 the key of Volevacha is represented.

the Key consists of following basic parts : the lever 7, the top sponge 1, the bottom sponge 2, a nut 6, the loose leaf of 5 and two springs 3 and 4. The lever 7 consists from skoby and the handle welded on it. In skobe are fixed the bottom motionless sponge 2 and springs 3 and 4. The nut 6, the loose leaf 5 and a shaft of the top sponge 1 have trapetseidalnuju a carving. Rotating a nut 6, it is possible to lift or lower the top sponge and by that to change divorce of a key depending on diameter of curtailed pipes and shaped parts. Springs give the chance to reject the top sponge forward or back on a corner 20 В° (thanks to it it is possible to turn a key, without removing it from a detail).

To fastening of curtailed details pipelines apply usual two-columned screw clips (fig. 66).

the Clip on columns

a Fig. 66. A clip on columns
1 - the check; 2 - an aperture; 3 - clamping the screw; 4 - a tightening prism

steel pipes, as a rule, connect Bezrezbovye by means of electric or gas welding.

Welded connections have a number of advantages before connections not the welded:

  • the Connections of pipes executed by welding, are much more durable the connections received in other ways.

  • At connection of pipes by welding need for flanges, bolts, muftah and sealants that gives the big economy in materials and labour cost disappears.

  • At the device of welded pipelines shaped parts are not necessary: tees and krestoviny are formed by welding of one pipes in others.
  • Operation of the welded pipeline is considerably facilitated, as in welded connections possibility of occurrence of a leak is almost excluded.

<< previous