Water heating Water heating Water heating of a country house Water heating of the house country house Heating house Heating

Appointment, placing and an assortment
Heat conductors in a building

the Lining of pipes in premises can be opened and hidden . Basically apply an open lining, as more simple and cheap. In this case the surface of pipes is used as heating and taken into consideration at definition of the area of heating devices and, except that, open surfaces of pipes, being cooled, increase a hydraulic pressure of a cooling liquid.


  • Placing podvodki - a connecting pipe between a strut or a horizontal branch and the device - depends on a kind of the heating device and position of pipes in heating system. For the majority of devices submitting podvodku on which hot water and return podvodku on which the chilled water is taken away from devices moves, lay horizontally (at length to 500 mm) or with not which bias. These podvodki depending on position of a longitudinal axis of the device in relation to an axis of pipes can be straight lines and with a space named "ѕ=ъющ". Preference give to a direct lining podvodok as ducks complicate preparation and installation of pipes, increase hydraulic resistance podvodok.
  • Knots vertical protochnoregulirovochnyh one-trumpet systems of water heating

    a Fig. 45. Knots vertical protochnoregulirovochnyh one-trumpet systems of water heating
    And - with priokonnymi struts and radiators (vertical axes of devices and windows coincide); - with zamonolichennymi struts and konvektorami (devices are displaced to struts from a vertical axis of windows); 1 - priokonnyj a strut; 2 - a radiator; 3 - an internal wall; 4 - zamonolichennyj a strut; 5 - konvektor

  • strut Placing - a connecting pipe between a highway and podvodkami - depends on position of highways in heating and placing system podvodok to devices. At placing of struts it is necessary to consider following recommendations:
    • to reduce length and diameter of struts for reduction of the expense of metal in them;
    • one-trumpet struts with unilateral podvodkami to devices to place on distance of 150 mm from an edge of a slope of window apertures (fig. 45;
    • to have struts in corners, obrazuemyh external protections;
    • to isolate struts for heating of staircases.

    The Problem of placing of struts is inseparable from a choice of a kind of system of heating for a concrete building. One-trumpet systems at performance of the listed recommendations have advantage before the two-trumpet. Struts, as well as heating devices, have mainly at external walls - openly on distance of 35 mm from a surface of walls to an axis of pipes, or is hidden in furrows of walls or a file of walls and partitions (fig. 45. Struts at a lining in furrows should not adjoin closely a surface of building designs. Two-trumpet struts in diameter to 32 mm place on distance of 80 mm between axes of pipes, and submitting struts have on the right. In places of crossing of struts and podvodok skoby arrange on struts (instead of on podvodkah), and a bend turn towards a premise. Horizontal one-trumpet branches - distributive poetazhnye pipes of systems of water heating, and intermediate between struts and podvodkami - place under heating devices with a floor on the same distance from a surface of walls, as well as struts and without a bias.

  • highway Placing - a connecting pipe between a copper (thermal point) and struts - depends on appointment and width of a building, a kind of the accepted system of heating.
  • In inhabited low buildings it is rational to apply horizontal one-trumpet system of water heating when in one branch combine functions not only podvodki and a strut, but also a highway. Pipes of systems of water heating seldom lay strictly horizontally. As a rule, pipes mount with a deviation from a horizontal - a bias. In systems of water heating the bias of horizontal pipes is necessary for tap while in service air congestions (in the top part of systems), and also for samotechnogo descent of water from pipes (in the bottom part). In gravitational systems (systems with natural circulation of the heat-carrier) the lining of horizontal pipes with a bias on water movement is supposed. The bottom highways always lay with a bias towards a copper (thermal point) where at oporozhnenii systems water goes down in the water drain. A recommended normal bias of highways of gravitational systems 0,005 (5 mm on 1 m of length of a pipe).

    For assemblage of steel pipes on a carving of heat conductors the connecting shaped products having a female thread are used. A material of connecting parts kovky - pig-iron. On fig. 46-48 the most common connecting elements are presented, and in tab. 31-34 are resulted them =шяюЁрчьхЁ№. 

    Table 31.

    Transitive tees, crosses and mufty, futorki (the sizes, mm)

     

     

    Conditional
    Passes
    Tees, crosses Futorki Mufty
    L1 L2 Skidy L Skid X L Skid X
    X1 X2
    20x15 30 31 17 20 26 16 39 15
    25x15 32 34 18 23 29 19 45 19
    25x20 35 36 21 23 29 17 45 18
    32x15 34 38 18 27 31 21 50 22
    32x20 36 41 20 28 31 19 50 21
    32x25 40 42 24 28 31 18 50 19
    40x15 36 42 18 31 31 21 55 21
    40x20 38 44 20 31 31 19 55 24
    40x25 42 46 24 32 31 18 55 28
    40x32 46 48 28 32 31 16 55 20
    50x25 44 52 24 38 35 22 65 30
    50x32 48 54 28 38 35 28 65 28
    50x40 52 55 32 37 35 18 65 26


    Table 32

    Straight lines short, direct long and compensating mufty,
    Direct tees and crosses, direct squares (the sizes, mm)

    Conditional
    Pass
    Straight lines
    Short mufty
    Straight lines
    Long mufty
    Compensating
    mufty
    Direct tees,
    Direct crosses
    Straight lines
    Squares
    Dv L skid h L skid h L L skid h L skid h
    15 28 5 36 13 100 28 18 28 18
    20 31 6 39 14 100 33 21 33 21
    25 35 7 45 17 100 38 25 38 25
    32 39 7 50 18 100 45 30 45 30
    40 43 7 55 19 100 50 33 50 33
    50 47 7 65 25 100 58 39 58 39


    Table 33.

    Tees and crosses with two transitions (the sizes, mm)

     

     

    Conditional passes D1xD2xD3 Tees with two transitions Crosses with two transitions
    L1 L2 L3 Skidy L1 L2 L3 Skidy
    X1 X2 X3 X1 X2 X3
    20x15x15 30 31 28 18 20 17 30 31 28 17 20 17
    20x20x15 33 33 31 20 20 20 33 33 31 20 20 20
    25x15x20 32 34 30 18 23 17 32 30 34 18 23 17
    25x20x20 35 36 33 21 23 20 35 36 33 21 23 20
    32x20x25 36 41 35 20 28 24 36 41 35 20 28 24
    32x25x25 40 42 38 24 28 24            
    40x25x32 42 46 40 24 32 24            


    Table 34.

    Counternuts, caps and stoppers (the sizes, mm)

    Conditional pass Counternuts Caps Stoppers
    N S L L S
    15 8 32 19 26 14
    20 9 36 22 32 17
    25 10 46 24 36 19
    32 11 55 27 39 22
    40 12 60 27 41 22
    50 13 75 32 48 27


    Connecting parts from malleable cast iron

    a Fig. 46. Connecting parts from malleable cast iron
    And - a straight line short mufta; - a straight line long mufta; in - compensating mufta; g - a direct tee; d - a direct cross; e - a direct square


    Connecting transitive parts from malleable cast iron


    a Fig. 47. Connecting transitive parts from malleable cast iron
    And - transitive a tee; - transitive a cross; in - futorka; g - transitive mufta

    Connecting parts from malleable cast iron

    a Fig. 48. Connecting parts from malleable cast iron

    and - a tee with two transitions; - a cross with two transitions; in - a counternut; g - a cap; d - a stopper