Water heating Water heating Water heating of a country house Water heating of the house country house Heating house Heating

the Heating equipment: teplogeneratory and coppers

the Choice of type of a source of warmth depends on a kind of fuel, its nominal teploproizvoditelnosti which should be more settlement teplopoter at home on 15-20%, a functional purpose.

Protecting designs the most modern low houses at high thermal resistance have rather low heat-absorbing ability owing to what they are characterised small teploustojchivostju, and the thermal mode in them is subject to fluctuations at influence of variable meteorological factors and astable giving of warmth. Noted feature predetermines expediency of application room teplogeneratorov with fire chambers of long and long burning or application of system of heating with the big thermal accumulation.

For the decentralised heat supply are most perspective two-functional teplogeneratory , providing simultaneously heating and hot water supply with fire chambers of long burning at work on firm fuel.

At use of firm fuel for room teplogeneratorov it is expedient to apply the sorted coals, coal briquettes, considering that the majority of coppers and devices are not adapted for burning of low-grade fuel.

The Top limit of the size of fractions of coal in order to avoid multiple burning should not exceed 50 mm, and bottom in connection with limitation of draught and absence of compulsory blasting - 13 mm.

As liquid fuel fuel oven household (TPB) or lighting kerosene can be applied.

Now in the market the wide nomenclature room teplogeneratorov on firm, gaseous and liquid fuel is presented. Their big part has a water contour in the design and is intended for use in water system of heating.

Taking into account relative density of firm fuel in fuel balance (over 80%) the greatest interest for the consumer represent tverdotoplivnye room coppers.

Tap of gases from room teplogeneratorov is carried out through a chimney in height of 5-7 m. the Draught created by such pipe, is insignificant, and that a smoke from a fire chamber did not beat out in a premise, gas resistance teplogeneratorov should be minimum.

Room teplogeneratory should possess also the least hydraulic resistance as the general circulating pressure in system is rather insignificant. For increase in this pressure expediently low arrangement teplogeneratora, however more often such decision in the conditions of an one-storeyed structure is frequently unacceptable. At usual placing teplogeneratora on a floor for decrease in the centre of heating and increase in a hydraulic pressure it is desirable, that teplogenerator was the minimum height, and heating surfaces settled down probably more low.

Expenses for fuel make the basic part of working costs, therefore copper EFFICIENCY should be high enough.

pig-iron or steel water-heating coppers , used independently or together with household plates for food cooking are Most extended. Pig-iron coppers have the big advantages - they durable and cheap at mass production. Besides, them type from separate sections, therefore change of number of sections it is possible to pick up their any productivity. Repair of coppers is usually reduced to replacement of the burnt through section by the new. Service life of pig-iron coppers makes about 20 years, while the others - 10-15 years. Term of operation from major repairs before repair not less than 2000 hours, other designs - not less than 8000 hours.

It is necessary to notice that all small coppers have small konvektivnye surfaces of heat exchange and thereof a heat of departing gases (250400 ° that causes decrease in their EFFICIENCY. If a copper to connect to a chimney through a heating guard, but it is possible to lower essentially temperature of departing gases and to increase EFFICIENCY. At a copper kindling when draught worsens, open zaslonku a forward stroke and gases go to a chimney.

As arrive, when begin a cold season. At the established draught zaslonka a forward stroke it is closed also gases go to a heating guard.

For the most widespread fuel - coal - use pig-iron coppers of marks KCHMM, КЧММ-2, КЧМ-1, КЧМ-2, КЧМ-3 more often. Outside they are sheathed by a casing from a sheet steel. Between a casing and pig-iron sections the thermal protection from sheet asbestos is laid.

Copper KCHMM (fig. 9) consists of three sections, and all necessary set is placed on extreme sections. The grid-iron lattice is executed partially cooled and has shurovochnoe the device. The gas path of a copper is equipped gazohodom a forward stroke, allowing at a kindling to direct gases, besides teploobmennyh surfaces, at once to a chimney (tab. 2).

Table 2

the Technical characteristics of copper KCHMM

the Area of a surface of heating of a copper, m 2

1,05

Teploproizvoditelnost:

kw

11,5

kcal/ch

10 000

EFFICIENCY, not more low (At burning of anthracite of mark of joint-stock company),%

75

the Area of a grid-iron lattice, m 2

0,0525

Top internal volume, m 3

0,023

Dimensions, m:

length

0,39

height

0,86

width

0,375

Capacity of a copper, l

9,5

Weight of sections on 1000 Vt, kg

12,5

the Depression necessary for work, the Pas

1113

Copper KCHMM -2 (fig. 10 ) is typed from a lobby, back and the intermediate sections which number makes from two to four. The grid-iron lattice is formed by alternating cooled and not cooled elements (tab. 3).

Copper KCHM -1 (fig. 11 ) differs from copper КЧМ-М2 basically a considerable quantity of sections (tab. 4 ).

In copper KCHM -2 (fig. 12 ) the number of average sections varies from 2 to 8. The forward section has apertures for fuel loading, shurovki a burning layer and ashes unloading. Lateral walls and copper top are isolated by sheet asbestos and a casing from a sheet steel (tab. 5).
For improvement teplotehnicheskih properties gazohody are supplied by extension pieces of a stream of the smoke gases, consisting of pig-iron inserts with internal edges and rasporok. At installation of inserts of an edge get to intersection cracks of a copper and fasten by means of cores. Rasporki with apertures for pass of gases place in top internal space between inserts. Rising upwards, gases hit in rasporku, partially passing through apertures, and get to the backlashes formed by inserts and sections of a copper, thereby improving a heat transfer from combustion products to water.

a Fig. 9. Pig-iron section water-heating copper KCHMM
And - the front view; - a cut; in - a kind from outside a back wall.


a Fig. 10. Pig-iron section water-heating copper КЧММ-2
And - a longitudinal section; - a cross-section

Table 3.

the Technical characteristics of copper КЧММ-2

 

the Area of a surface of heating, m 2

0,9

1,17

1,44

Teploproizvoditelnost, Vt

10500

14000

17500

EFFICIENCY at burning of coal of mark of joint-stock company,%

not less than 75

Number of sections

4

5

6

Capacity of a copper, l

16,7

19,7

22,7

the Area of a grid-iron lattice, m 2

0,048

0,064

0,08

copper Dimensions, mm:

 

length

590

670

750

width

450

450

450

height

680

680

680

a Fig. 12. Pig-iron section water-heating copper КЧМ-2

1 - tjagopreryvatel; 2 - a torch; 3 - an input of return water; 4, 5 - electromagnetic and solenoidal gates; 6 - a gas supply; 7 - a nipple; 8 - electroconducting; 9 - a gas input; 10 - an input of hot water; 11 – the transformer of heating with natural and compulsory circulation at hydrostatic pressure to 0,3 MPa (From m 2 ) and temperature of the heat-carrier to 95 ° S

Fire chambers of coppers "грЁюъ" are adapted for long and effective burning of fuel. In a fire chamber of a copper at the expense of additional edges on vertical pipes of sections are formed not filled with fuel bypass rastopochnye the channels, allowing to lower aerodynamic resistance, to make single loading of fuel in full, to increase an operating time of a copper without юсёыѕцштрэш . 

the Table 6. 

a copper Technical characteristics "грЁюъ-2"

the Indicator

Quantity of sections

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Rated power, kw

16,5

23

29,5

36

42,5

49

55,5

Specific materialoemkost, kg/kw

13,8

12,1

10,8

10,6

10,1

9,8

9,6

Dimensions, mm

390х

500х

610х

720х

830х

940х

1050х

500х

500х

500х

500х

500х

500х

500х

1065

1065

1065

1065

1065

1065

1065

Weight, kg

232

283

333

385

433

485

535

the Closed cindery space , formed by edges of sections, provides gazoplotnost a copper, necessary for regulation of giving of primary air.

Giving of primary air in a burning zone is regulated by opening of a cover of an air inlet on a necessary corner. Duration of a running cycle in a mode of long burning of a copper:

  • on anthracite and coals with an exit of flying substances to 17%, zolnostju to 20%, humidity to 13% makes not less than 12 hours;
  • on stone and brown coals with an exit of flying substances to 50%, zolnostju to 20%, humidity to 13% makes not less than 8 hours.

type Coppers "грЁюъ" can be converted for burning of natural gas . Transfer of a copper for work on gas, installation of automatics of safety and putting into operation are made local proizvodstvennoekspluatatsionnymi by offices of a gas economy.


a Fig. 13. A water-heating copper of type КЧМ2М "грЁюъ-2"

1 - a package of sections; 2 - a lattice; 3 - a wall right; 4 - the handle; 5 - an air inlet; 6 - a box zolnikovyj; 7 - dverka bottom; 8 - a wall left; 9 - dverka top; 10 - a cover; 11 - tap; 12 - a branch pipe gazohoda

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