Water heating Water heating Water heating of a country house Water heating of the house country house Heating house Heating

the Heating equipment: teplogeneratory and coppers (ch. 2)

Modernized coppers КЧМ-2У "-рѕэрё" low buildings and separate apartments in volume of 400-1300 m 3 . In it the coke, the sorted anthracite, coal and bricketed malozolnye kinds of firm fuel are burnt. After suitably go re-equipment coppers can work on at native gas and liquid easy fuel (tab. 7).

On specific metal consumption this copper concedes to copper КЧМ-2М "грЁюъ-2" a little; but surpasses it in EFFICIENCY.

Table 7

the Technical characteristics of copper КЧМ-2У "-рѕэрё"

the warmth Generator Rated power, kw Kolvo of sections Dimensions, mm Weight, kg
height width length

КЧМ-2У-4

КЧМ-2У-5

КЧМ-2У-6

КЧМ-2У-7

КЧМ-2У-8

КЧМ-2У-9

КЧМ-2У-10

КЧМ-2У-11

КЧМ-2У-12

22

28

34

40,5

47

53

59

65

71,5

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1062

1062

1062

1062

1062

1062

1062

1062

1062

465

465

465

465

465

465

465

465

465

375

475

575

675

775

875

975

1075

1175

281

327

391

417

462

508

552

598

644

Coppers KCHM-ZDG (tab. 8) concern coppers of universal type and can be maintained on the sorted firm fuel, and at a corresponding additional equipment on the gaseous. In a type copper KCHM-ZDG it is possible to burn effectively both anthracite, and coal with an exit of flying substances to 17% in a mode of neglected burning. Duration of a running cycle - 12 hours, EFFICIENCY - 78-79%.

Is issued seven variants of coppers with quantity of sections from 3 to 9. They can work in systems of heating with natural and compulsory circulation of the heat-carrier, pressure of water no more than 0,6 MPa (6 from m 2 ) and temperature no more than 95 ° Р. 

Table 8

the Technical characteristics of coppers KCHM-ZDG

the warmth Generator

Rated power, kw

Kolvo of sections

Dimensions, mm

Weight, kg

height

width

length

КЧМ3-ДГ

16,5

3

1070

470

450

224

23,0

4

1070

470

555

270

29,0

5

1070

470

660

319

35,0

6

1070

470

765

365

41,5

7

1070

470

870

413

48

8

1070

470

975

460

54

9

1070

470

1080

506

All pig-iron coppers are calculated on heating of water till 90-95 ° With and rather low pressure (24 from m 2 ). A lack of all pig-iron coppers is necessity manually to support a constant thickness of a layer of fuel on a lattice that represents certain inconvenience for tenants. Besides, pig-iron coppers are heavy and labour-consuming in installation.

Besides pig-iron it is expedient to use also steel welded coppers . Coppers of series KS are executed in the form of a rectangular curbstone with the internal fire chamber surrounded with a water shirt (fig. 14). In the bottom part of a fire chamber are placed unified for all tiporjada grid-irons. The fire chamber separates from konvektivnoj parts a peak.

Konvektivnyj gazohod represents a design consisting of three horizontal cracks in height of 20 mm which are formed by installation of two water spending channels executed with a bias for removal of formed vials of steam. Top dverka serves for fuel and clearing loading konvektivnogo gazohoda from soot, and bottom - for service of a grid-iron lattice and fuel.

Water-heating copper KS

a Fig. 14. Water-heating copper KS
1 - zolnik; 2 - grid-irons; 3 - a fire chamber; 4 - a water shirt; 5 - a peak separating a fire chamber from konvektivnoj of a part; 6 - konvektivnyj gazohod; 7 - water spending channels; 8 - the manometrical thermometer; 9 - a loading fire chamber; 10 - dverka for service of a grid-iron lattice; 11 - the adjusting screw; 12 - rotary zaslonka

The External surface of coppers is covered by thermal isolation - gidrofobizirovannym a basalt cardboard, revetted by steel panels and painted by enamel light =юэют. 

 Крсышчр 9.

the Technical characteristics of coppers KS

the Indicator КС-Т-11,2 КС-Т-13,7 КС-Т-16,8 КС-Т-23,7
Teploproizvoditelnost, kw 11,2 13,7 16,8 23,7
EFFICIENCY on firm fuel,% 75 75 75 75
a heating Surface, m 2 1,12 1,38 1,68 2,37
Parameters nagretoj waters:  
temperature, ° With 95 95 95 95
pressure absolute, kgs/m 2 3 3 3 3
Hydraulic resistance, the Pas 30 30 30 100
Depression in a copper fire chamber, the Pas 15 15 15 30
Temperature of an external surface, ° With 70 70 70 70
Weight, kg 100 130 175 225
Operation time on firm fuel
Without service, not less
6 6 6 6

Designs of steel water-heating coppers are issued in different executions: for work on firm fuel (KS); on gas (KS-G); on liquid fuel (ks); and combined for work both on firm fuel, and on gas (KS-T-G).

Technical characteristics of coppers of series KS are resulted in tab. 9-11. 

Table 10.

the Technical characteristics of coppers ks, KS-G

the Indicator Mark of coppers at work on fuel
liquid gaseous
КС-Ж-8,1 КС-Ж-13,9 КС-Ж-18,5 КС-Г-11,3 КС-Г-22,7 КС-Г-34,0
Teploproizvoditelnost, kw 8,1 13,9 18,5 11,3 22,7 34,0
EFFICIENCY,% 80 80 80 86 86 86
Absolute pressure of water, kgs/m 2 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0
the Water temperature, ° With 95 95 95 95 95 95
Depression, the Pas 15 15 15 25 25 25
Hydraulic resistance, the Pas 30 30 30 30 30 30
Weight, kg 90 130 170 85 100 120


Table 11.

the Technical characteristics of coppers KS-T-G

the Indicator КС-Т-Г-10 КС-Т-Г-12,5 КС-Т-Г-16 КС-Т-Г-20
Nominal thermal capacity, kw 10 12,5 16 20
Overall dimensions (on a casing), mm  
width 430 430 430 430
height 875 875 920 920
depth 315 350 410 510
Thermal pressure of a mirror of burning, m kw / 2 210 225 225 210
Specific obemzagruzki fuel, dm 3 / kw 2,5 2,3 2,6 2,7
Weight, kg 110 117 135 155
EFFICIENCY,% not less:  
on firm fuel 77 77 75 75
on gas natural 81 81 80 80

 

the Fire chamber with a torch for rozzhiga firm fuel

a Fig. 15. A fire chamber with a torch for rozzhiga firm fuel
1 - a gas torch; 2 - an overlay on a gas torch and a grid-iron lattice; 3 - a grid-iron lattice; 4 - an aperture for fuel loading; 5 - walls toplivnika; 6 - the crane of a gas torch; 7 - podvodka gas; 8 - the crane for a tube; 9 - a flexible hose; 10 - podduvalnoe an aperture; 11 - a tube for torch ignition

At burning in coppers of firm fuel , especially coals and anthracites, there are difficulties with them rozzhigom as they have an ignition heat. If in the house there is a torch on ballonnom (szhizhennom) gas rozzhig it is possible to facilitate, using special rastopochnoe the device (fig. 15). In this case the household gas torch with which help it is made rozzhig a layer is inserted into the middle of a grid-iron lattice. After fuel was warmed up, a torch switch off.

the Most widespread kind of fuel in a countryside there is fire wood quickly "яЁюуюЁр¦Ёхх" low-calorie fuel. Therefore they are expedient for burning in "°р§=э№§" fire chambers with a high layer in which fuel burns long time.

On fig. 16 the design of a steel welded copper for burning of fire wood is shown. a copper one-pass with the top tap of products of combustion . Air moves through a grid-iron lattice (primary) and over a layer of fire wood (secondary). Giving of secondary air is necessary whereas at heating fire wood thermally decays with allocation of combustible flying gases. Primary air is used for burning of a firm part of the fuel remaining on grid-irons, and secondary - for burning flying in nadslojnom space. Feature of a copper is possibility of its use not only for heating, but also for hot water supply. For this purpose in the top part of water capacity of a copper the cylindrical water water heat exchanger in which the cold water which is subject to heating for hot water supply moves takes places, and from lateral aspect the heat exchanger is washed by hot water of heating system (tab. 12).

the Majority of let out coppers and devices is intended for one function of a heat supply - heating . However the tendency to manufacture combined, or as them still name, two-functional teplogeneratorov which design allows to cover two kinds of thermal loadings recently was outlined: heating and hot water supply.

 

the Copper from a sheet steel with a wood fire chamber

a Fig. 16. A copper from a sheet steel with a wood fire chamber
And - a side view; - the front view; in - a cross-section; 1 - podduvalnaja dverka; 2 - prochistnaja a door; 3 - a top internal door; 4 - a burning regulator; 5 - a water heater; 6 - a smoke branch pipe; 7 - grid-irons; 8 - cleaning with a sandy shutter; 9 - a throttle (opening at a kindling and closed at the established burning); 10 - a tubular electroheater

Table 12

the Characteristic of a steel copper with a wood mine fire chamber

the Indicator

the Area of a surface of heating, m 2

1,3

2,0

4,5

Teploproizvoditelnost, kw

13,0

20,0

44,0

Capacity, l

220

230

420

the Sizes, mm height

720

720

720

width

650

650

950

length

1350

1450

1900

Weight, kg

360

390

680

Table 13

Specifications of copper КС-Т-СВ-16

Rated power of a heating contour, kw (kcal/ch) at burning:

 

coal

16 (13760)

fire wood

10 (8600)

Time of continuous work (at rated power and

To single loading of fuel), ch:

 

on coal

12

on fire wood

5

Capacity of a flowing water heater, kw

18 (400 l/ch at heating of water from 5

To 45 °)

EFFICIENCY,%

to 70

Working pressure in a heating contour, m vod.st. (From m 2 )

to 10 (1)

Working pressure in a contour of a flowing water heater, m vod.st. (From m 2 )

to 60 (6)

Service life, years

not less than 25

Weight, kg, no more

130

Automated water-heating copper КС-Т-СВ-16 is intended for heating of an apartment house by the area to 80100 m 2 and hot water supply. Use tonkolistovoj stainless steel and the special design of a flowing heater reduces weight and copper dimensions, considerably increases term of its service. The automatic regulator overturning a grid-iron, the big sizes dverok and a cindery box facilitate copper service. The regulator can be applied in a mode of the manual gauge of temperature, thus the gauge of external temperature is established in a heated premise by) (tab. 13).

the Developed smoke cavity , preliminary heating and air giving in two levels, air flow restriction by an automatic regulator
And the qualitative thermal protection topochnovodogrejnoj assemblages reduces losses of warmth and increases time continuous (without service) works of a copper till 12 o'clock. the qualitative thermal protection and great volume of a water-heating tank allow to use in an intercold season a copper in a mode of the accumulator of warmth, providing current requirements for hot water with a short fire chamber once a day.

the Industry lets out special water heaters , teploobmennye which surfaces are executed from steel pipes and sections. Devices differ from pig-iron and steel coppers more aesthetic registration. Device ATV-17,5 (model 930) (tab. 14) is base model in this series (fig. 17).

the Device water-heating on firm fuel two-functional АТВ-17,5

a Fig. 17. The device water-heating on firm fuel two-functional АТВ-17,5
1 - zolnik; 2 - a grid-iron; 3 - a fire chamber door; 4 - a fire chamber; 5 - the heat exchanger of hot water supply; 6 - the heating heat exchanger; 7 - the case; 8 - the valve safety; 9 - furmy for giving of secondary air; 10 - a door zolnika

the Device represents two vertical cylindrical tanks, placed one in other. The internal tank is intended for heating, external - for hot water supply.

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